# Google search across languages

In 2013, I wrote how crowdsourcing could help break out of the language bubble we all find ourselves in when we search online. How our search results only come from the language we write our search keywords in. But since then, machine translation between languages has greatly improved. So why are we still in our language bubbles?

There are some rays of hope. Google is reportedly able to return you results from other languages when there are no good hits in your primary language. I have to say, though, that I have never experienced this. Maybe because I usually search in English. I would guess that when you search in smaller languages, you sometimes get English results added.

But I want the opposite. I want to see ideas and thoughts and solutions that might be available in other languages, the languages I do not speak, when I search in English. I want diversity. I think all the pieces to build this are available. Why is this not already available? Am I overlooking any obstacle to this?

# Store IDs in MongoDB as binary or as string?

I was curious if MongoDB compression can efficiently store IDs if they are represented as string instead in a more compact binary form. So I made a benchmark and measure compression performance of three available compressors: zlib, snappy, and zstd.

# Can humans grow up in zero gravity?

Gravity seems to be our first and most important teacher. Patient, consistent and always present. Children can learn cause and effect through it. What happens if I lift an object and let go? Over and over again. On repeat. Always the same thing.

When we think about life in space. Can we raise children there? Can children grow up in zero gravity? Can they develop their mental abilities without having this teacher around them? Or will they develop in other ways? A different kind of logic?

# Database-abstraction APIs should not exist

Database-abstraction APIs where you write a query using the host programming language should not exist. Or more precisely, should not have to exist. For example, in Django you can query the database using the following Python code:

Entry.objects.filter(is_draft=True)


Which Django translates (roughly) into the following SQL:

SELECT *
FROM blog_entry
WHERE is_draft = true;


But why we cannot write SQL query directly as an SQL query, while retaining all other features Django offers through its database-abstraction API (database agnostic code, inputs to queries and outputs from queries being Python objects, etc.)? I claim there is no reason anymore for that.

# Towards Automatic Machine Learning Pipeline Design

I recently finished my PhD thesis and is now available online. Most of the code related to the thesis is available in this repository.

# In node.js, always query in JSON from PostgreSQL

Recently I was exploring the use of PostgreSQL as a replacement for MongoDB. PostgreSQL has in recent versions great support for JSON. You can store JSON values and you can even make indices on JSON fields. When combined with node.js and its driver things look almost magical. You read from PostgreSQL and you get automatically a JavaScript object, JSON fields automatically embedded. But can we also use JSON for transporting results of queries themselves, especially joins? In MongoDB the idea is to embed such related documents. In PostgreSQL we could also embed them instead of joining them, but would that be faster? I made a benchmark to get answers.

# Reactive queries in PostgreSQL

I am a big fan of the application architecture promoted by Meteor. I like declarative programming. You describe what you want and not how and the system does the rest. Reactive programming is very similar. You define how outputs should be computed from inputs, but when is this computed and how it is composed with other computations is left to the system. So you can define what is read from the database and send to the client. And how it is read on the client and transformed and send to the UI library. And then UI library can render this data. And every time something changes, the rest gets automatically recomputed, refreshed, re-rendered.

Meteor is tightly linked with MongoDB. They developed a complex piece of technology to provide reactive queries. Reactive queries are queries which after providing initial results they also continue providing any changes to those results as input data used in queries change. While I like MongoDB, I still prefer consistency tools provided by traditional SQL databases: transactions, foreign keys, joins and triggers. They are close to declarative programming as well. You define relations between data once and then the system makes sure data is consistent. I had to implement many of those features on top of MongoDB, like my package PeerDB.

This is why I made reactive-postgres node.js package. It provides exactly such reactive queries, but for PostgreSQL open source database. Its API is simple, on purpose, and because it should be. You provide a query, you get initial data, and then you get all changes. Try it out.

# Proof of luck consensus protocol and Luckychain blockchain

Proof of work consensus protocol used in modern cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum consumes a lot of energy and requires participants to use their CPUs for mining instead of other useful work. But exactly this cost is why it is works to prevent Sybil attacks. One cannot participate in the selection of the next block without paying this cost, which makes the issue of puppet participants trying to influence block selection irrelevant, because they also have to do the work, and pay the cost.

In recent Intel CPUs a new set of instructions is available, SGX, which allows one to run code inside a special environment where even operating system cannot change its execution. In the paper we published (arXiv, Cryptology ePrint Archive) we explore consensus protocol designs using the Intel SGX technology, with the goal of making blockchain participation energy efficient, with low CPU usage, and to democratize mining so that participants can participate again with their general purpose computers (with Intel CPUs) instead of only with specialized ASICs.

# Cookie consent fiasco

In May 2011 a EU directive was adopted with the goal of empowering web users with control over their exposure to cookies. The main issue is that 3rd party cookies allow users to be tracked across websites. The issue is that websites are often a mash-up of content coming from various services, each providing their own set of cookies. A service (a 3rd party) can thus track users across all websites using it.

In Slovenia I have participated in the process of adopting this directive into a local law which come into the effect in 2013. During this process I believed that the goal is good, and the law is reasonable. I thought that it handles technology well and with understanding, defining cookies broadly enough to be applicable to various tracking techniques and not just literally only cookies.

Maybe because of my participation and hearing all the arguments and perspectives I had a biased view, because once the law got into the effect a public outcry followed. At approximately the same time it got into the effect also in other EU countries which just reinforced public reception. Developers did not like that they had to do extra work and web frameworks they were using were not really helping them. It was unclear who will pay for that, especially because those changes were not planned and budgeted, especially for sites already made. To my surprise even developers who are otherwise outspoken about users’ privacy disliked the requirement of asking users for consent about cookies.

# Pay-it-forward cryptocurrency

Bitcoin, Ethereum, and blockchain in particular are often claimed as revolutionary as the Internet itself. They will decentralize the Internet again, change how we make apps, empower end-users, and remove intermediaries. But are they really so revolutionary? Even ignoring the technical limitations of scaling and power consumption, we can hardly imagine such wide influence on our society as we observed for Internet. Internet connected people globally, provided means of immediate communication and access to knowledge and information. It changed many aspects of our lives and how we as a species operate. But blockchain, does it really have this potential?

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